About this Unit
Second Grade Standards Edition Unit 4 (Measurement, Data, and Geometry) emphasizes concrete and pictorial activities to ensure mastery of each topic. Time is stepped-off from hours to half-hours. Money proceeds from pennies to quarters, including counting coins. Length includes measuring with a variety of everyday classroom objects and pictures, plus longer/shorter comparisons. Data teaches information gathering with simple objects and pictures, beginning charting and graphing, and comparing basic information. Geometry includes identifying basic 2 and 3-D shapes, as well as basic fractional parts of shapes.
The goals of TouchMath Second Grade Standards Edition Program, Unit 4:
Measurement, Data and Geometry are to extend learning to telling time to one minute, finding values of mixed coins and bills, reviewing and expanding data representation, interpretation, and collection, measuring with standard and metric units, applying operations to measurement, using geometric shapes and their attributes, and partitioning shapes into same-size squares and equal parts. Word problems are naturally included, and recognition of everyday activities is reinforced. The unit incorporates active student participation to experience the concepts. The TouchMath approach and the strategies mastered in the first three units are implemented throughout development of varied skills in this unit.
Module 1: Time
This module provides instruction and guided practice with telling time. The year is expressed in the number of months, weeks, and days. The 24-hour day is identified in a.m. and p.m., and students relate their activities to these time periods. Once students are familiar with 24 hours, they begin to tell time on analog clocks. The guided practice activities begin with skip counting on pictures of clocks using stars on five-minute intervals. Review activities include matching analog clocks to digital times, writing digital times for analog displays, tracing clock hands for a given digital time, and multiple choice. The learning is scaffolded not only in the time increments but also in the application: tracing the hands on the clock, to tracing one hand and drawing the other, to drawing both hands. When students finish this module, they will have a strong foundation for telling time. Elapsed time and relationships during time periods develop throughout daily activities and experiences.
Module 2: Money
This module provides instruction and guided practice with money. The module begins with identification of all coins, the one-dollar bill (or single), and their values. Students become familiar with the fronts and backs of the coins and the dollar. The cent symbol (¢) is used to express money values in relation to one penny. The learning is focused on recognizing the coins and the one-dollar bill, associating the name with the representational example, and reading and writing the names. Practice is then provided for counting the value of multiple coins of the same type (e.g., four dimes), counting the value of mixed coins (e.g., two quarters, three nickels, and two pennies), and identifying the coins to represent given values. Bills up to hundreds are introduced and compared to multiples of smaller-value bills. The activities conclude with finding the values of mixed bills and coins. The concept of money is then advanced to include comparisons, word problems, charts, and review with bubble answers. Principles of financial literacy and management are sprinkled throughout this cluster. When students finish this module, they will have a foundation for understanding money, the relationships of coins and bills, and some basics of money application in everyday activities.
Module 3: Data
This module focuses on collecting, organizing, representing, and evaluating data. Students begin with transferring organized pictorial data (e.g., from calendars) to single-unit graphs with three categories and comparing the data. The learning is scaffolded to include vertical graphs, horizontal graphs, four categories, and bar graphs. High-interest topics and hands-on activities keep students engaged. The guided practice ensures skill building in learning to organize data to construct graphs. Students then explore experiences with collecting and organizing data. Students measure common classroom objects using non-standard and standard tools, including drawings of rulers. They organize and order the data from least to greatest before recording and comparing the data in line plots. Problem solving is inherent throughout the activities. When students finish this module, they will have a strong foundation for the collection, organization, visual representation, and analysis of data in meaningful applications.
Module 4: Measurement
This module introduces length measurement, including standard and metric units. Three tools are introduced: rulers, yardsticks, and tape measures. The activities begin with learning to measure length with the tools. Guided practice in finding length models and structures student implementation. Once students have measured various objects, they select the most reasonable tool to use with a given list. In the next activity, students measure a given list of objects with different tools. Drawing conclusions about smaller units of measure requiring a greater number of units focuses the concept. The activities conclude with making comparisons and selecting estimations using two different units. The same activities are then mirrored using metric rulers and meter sticks. When students finish this module, they will have demonstrated finding the length of readily accessible objects in both standard and metric units. They will have developed a foundation for measurement.
Module 5: Operations with Length
This module extends the activities from the previous module to include operations and representations on number lines. The module begins with students measuring lines with the metric system, repeating a familiar activity. They then cut out these lengths of paper and use them to practice addition and subtraction. This learning extends to determining the amount of tape needed to frame a given shape, providing a soft introduction to perimeter. Word problems provide meaningful application within the activities. The activities are scaffolded in complexity to incorporate addition and subtraction for solving measurement word problems. The content of the word problems relates to geometric shapes and distances. The next level of skill development is introduced with number lines representing lengths from word problems in the previous cluster. Students record the measurements on number lines. The number lines represent writing equations and solving for unknowns. When students finish this module, they will recognize application of operations in meaningful activities that relate to measurement of length.
Module 6: Geometry
This module builds on the understanding of shapes and extends to finding same-size squares and equal parts of the shapes. The module reviews familiar shapes and introduces shapes with an increasing number of sides. The learning is structured so students identify the critical attributes of a shape, write its name, recognize it with any orientation, select it from other shapes, and draw it. The drawing process is scaffolded from using a ruler to connect dots and then to free-hand drawing. Comparisons and contrasts are integrated for greater depth of understanding. The module also includes partitioning rectangles into same-size squares as a soft introduction to area. The learning is again scaffolded from guided practice to independence. The final activities have students partition circles and rectangles into equal parts, recognize the fractional parts, and write fractions and fraction names. When students finish this module, they will have had many experiences that relate to reasoning with shapes. The TouchMath approach of providing the experiences through multiple learning styles strengthens the base for all learners.
See how the Second Grade Standards Edition Program meets or exceeds state standards.